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Tribulus Terrestris 200 Grams


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ADP: $49.99
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Manufacturer: *Supplement Direct*
Manufacturer Part No: 7348900351
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Supplement Direct Tribulus Terrestris has been used for centuries in ancient Greece, India and Africa to rejuvenate the body. Tribulus has been used by some of the world's most elite athletes, but may be used by the recreational athlete as well. Instead of being a testosterone precursor, it may leads to the production of the luteinizing hormone (LH). When LH levels are increased, the natural production of testosterone also increases. Our minimum 40% saponin content makes SUPPLEMENT DIRECT Tribulus Terrestris is a very potent and economical choice
 
Suggested Use: Take 2-4 servings 1-2 times daily preferably prior to breakfast and dinner. Supplement Facts: Serving Size: 1 Rounded Scoop (500 MG) Tribulus Terrestris (45% saponins), Servings Per Container: 400, Calories: 0 Protein 0: Total Fat 0, Saturated Fat 0 grams, Cholesterol 0 grams, Sodium 0 grams, Potassium 0 grams, Total Carbohydrates 0 grams, Dietary Fiber 0 grams, sugars 0 grams, Protein 0 grams, not a significant source of any vitamins.
 
Indredients: Tribulus Terrestris (standardized for 45% saponins).
 
Manufactured and Distrubuted by: SUPPLEMENT DIRECT 399 E FOOTHILL BLVD SAN LUIS OBISPO, CA. 93405 WWW.SUPPLEMENTDIRECT.COM TOLL FREE 888-776-7629 TECH SUPPORT 805-546-1089
 

The effect of five weeks of Tribulus terrestris supplementation on muscle strength and body composition during preseason training in elite rugby league players.
J Strength Cond Res. 2007 May;21(2):348-53. Rogerson S, Riches CJ, Jennings C, Weatherby RP, Meir RA, Marshall-Gradisnik SM. School of Exercise Science and Sport Management, Southern Cross University Lismore, New South Wales, Australia.

The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of tribulus terrestris on strength, fat free mass, and the urinary testosterone / epitestosterone ratio during 5 weeks of preseason training in elite rugby league players. Twenty-two Australian elite male rugby league players were match-paired and randomly assigned in a double-blind manner to either a tribulus terrestris or placebo group. All subjects performed structured heavy resistance training as part of the club's preseason preparations. A tribulus terrestris extract (450 mg each day)) or placebo capsule was consumed once daily for 5 weeks. After 5 weeks of training, strength and fat free mass increased significantly without any difference between those who took placebo or those taking tribulus terrestris extract. No between-group differences were noted in the urinary testosterone / epitestosterone ratio.

The hormonal effects of Tribulus terrestris and its role in the management of male erectile dysfunction - an evaluation using primates, rabbit and rat.
Phytomedicine. 2008 January. Gauthaman K, Ganesan AP. Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, 5 Lower Kent Ridge Road, 119074 Singapore.

Hormonal effects of tribulus terrestris were evaluated in primates, rabbit and rat to identify its usefulness in the management of erectile dysfunction). Tribulus terrestris extract was administered intravenously, as a bolus dose of 7.5, 15 and 30mg/kg, in primates for acute study. Rabbits and normal rats were treated with 2.5, 5 and 10mg/kg of tribulus terrestris extract orally for 8 weeks, for chronic study. In addition, castrated rats were treated either with testosterone cypionate or tribulus terrestris orally (5mg/kg daily for 8 weeks). Blood samples were analyzed for testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) levels using radioimmunoassay. In primates, the increases in testosterone (52%), DHT (31%) and DHEAS (29%) at 7.5mg/kg were statistically significant. In rabbits, both testosterone and DHT were increased compared to control, however, only the increases in DHT were statistically significant. In castrated rats, increases in testosterone levels by 51% and 25% were observed with testosterone and tribulus terrestris extract respectively that were statistically significant. The herb increases some of the sex hormones, possibly due to the presence of protodioscin in the extract.

Mechanism of action, how does it work?

Tribulus terrestris may work by relaxing smooth muscles and increasing blood flow into the corpus cavernosa. The relaxant effect observed is probably due to the increase in the release of nitric oxide from the endothelium and nerve endings. Since tribulus relaxes smooth muscles, this may account for its benefits in abdominal colic. The role of  this herb on testosterone production or release needs to be evaluated further before any statements can be made with confidence.
What's in tribulus terrestris herb?

The fruits of tribulus contain a number of different substances including saponins (protodioscin, furostanol), glycosides, flavonoids, alkaloids, resins, tannins, sugars, sterols, and essential oil. Recently, two new saponins have been isolated from tribulus terrestris: Terrestrinins A and B, .
 
A frequently mentioned substance in tribulus terrestris is protodioscin, which some claim is one of the active substances within this plant. When different samples of tribulus were analyzed, significant differences in the composition of saponins were observed depending on the origin and plant part used. One analysis of products showed considerable variations of 0.17 to 6.5 % in protodioscin content.

Availability of tribulus terrestris supplements

Tribulus is most often found in combination with other sex-enhancing herbs in various libido products. This herb is also sold by itself often in a dosage ranging from 250 to 750 mg. Tribulus is found in a variety of extract potencies. Some examples of tribulus extracts include 20 percent saponins, 40 percent saponins, 45 percent saponins, 60 percent saponins, 20 percent protodioscin, 40 percent protodioscin.

Tribulus side effects, caution, safety

No significant tribulus side effects have yet been reported in the medical literature regarding its use by humans. However, little is known about the long-term use of tribulus consumption in humans. As with most herbs, it is best to take breaks from use in order to minimize potential long term tribulus side effects. When sheep consume tribulus terrestris as 80% of their diet, liver damage and other changes occur. In my personal experience, and feedback from patients, I have noticed and heard the following tribulus terrestris side effects: more energy, feeling warmer, slightly faster heart beat, restlessness. These tribulus terrestris side effects are dose dependent. I personally do not notice the tribulus side effects on dosages less than 300 mg, but these side effects are more common above 500 mg.
 
Cholesterol study in rabbits

Changes in the brain cortex of rabbits on a cholesterol-rich diet following supplementation with a herbal extract of Tribulus terrestris.
Histol Histopathol. 2009 Jun; Berkman Z, Tanriover G, Acar G, Sati L, Altug T, Demir R. Department of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine, Namik Kemal University, Tekirdag, Turkey.

Extracts of the medicinal herb Tribulus terrestris are used for treating various diseases. The saponins, a component of TT, play a role in regulating blood pressure and in treatment of high lipid levels. The aim of the study was to investigate alterations in the cerebral cortex of experimental rabbits on a cholesterol rich diet treated with tribulus extract. The rabbits were divided into three groups and followed for 12 weeks as control group (CG); experimental group I (EG-I), fed with a cholesterol-rich diet; experimental group II (EG-II), treated with an extract of TT (5 mg/kg/day) after a cholesterol-rich diet of 4 weeks. In EG-I there were ultrastructural changes, including mitochondrial degeneration, increased lipofuscin pigments, myelin sheath damage with axoplasmic shrinkage and electron dense granules in the neurovascular unit. The number of synapses apparently decreased in both experimental groups. Administration of TT extract in EG-II led to marked ultrastructural alterations in neurons, including decreased mitochondrial degeneration and extensive oedematous areas in the neurovascular unit. However, in EG-II, lamellar myelin, axonal structures and mitochondria were well protected. These alterations possibly indicate that saponins have an effect on the neurons either directly or by its conversion to steroidal saponins. Our findings add further evidence supporting the protective claims of TT in cerebral architecture in dietary induced hyperlipidemia.
 
Tribulus Terrestris benefit - heart and immune support along with anti cancer benefit

Tribulus terrestris has been studied in China and found to reduce the frequency of angina pectoris. Laboratory studies have found tribulus to have anti-microbial and anti-tumor potential. I have not seen any good evidence that it enhances athletic performance. It may also lower blood levels of cholesterol, and, in addition, tribulus may have antioxidant properties. Tribulus lowers blood pressure in rats with hypertension and has a blood sugar lowering effect. Once study in laboratory cells found saponins from tribulus terrestris inhibited the growth of a certain type of liver cancer cell line. 
 
Where is tribulus herb found?

Tribulus terrestris herb grows naturally in many parts of the world including the Americas, Australia, Europe, the Middle East, and Africa. Tribulus is considered a noxious weed found abundantly on roadsides and vacant lots whose seeds are sharp and painful to step on. The foliage of tribulus terrestris is toxic to livestock, especially sheep, when consumed in large quantities. The fruits or berries of tribulus are the parts most often used in traditional medicine. The composition of different substances within tribulus is likely to vary depending on which part of the world it grows.
 
Blood pressure effect

Antihypertensive and vasodilator effects of methanolic and aqueous extracts of Tribulus terrestris in rats.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Apr 6;104(3):351-5. Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kuwait University, P.O. Box 24923, 13110 Safat, Kuwait.
The effects of methanolic and aqueous extracts of Tribulus terrestris on rat blood pressure (BP) and the perfused mesenteric vascular bed were investigated. The tribulus terrestris extracts dose-dependently reduced BP in spontaneously hypertensive ratswith the aqueous fraction being more potent than the methanolic fraction at all doses tested. It was concluded that methanolic and aqueous extracts of Tribulus terrestris possess significant antihypertensive activity in spontaneously hypertensive rats. The antihypertensive effects appeared to result from a direct arterial smooth muscle relaxation possibly involving nitric oxide release and membrane hyperpolarization.
 
Tribulus Terrestris research studies

Experimental study of saponins from Tribulus terrestris on renal carcinoma cell line
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2005 Aug;30(16):1271-4.
To investigate the effect of saponins from Tribulus terrestris on the renal carcinoma cell in vitro, and inhibitory mechanisms. Saponins from tribulus terrestris can significantly inhibit the growth of renal carcinoma cell in vitro, partially, by apoptosis.

Antifungal activities and action mechanisms of compounds from Tribulus terrestris L.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Sep 14;
Antifungal activity of natural products is being studied widely. Saponins are known to be antifungal and antibacterial. The in vitro antifungal activities of the eight saponins against five yeasts, Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis and Cryptococcus neoformans were studied. In vivo activity of tribulus terrestris in a Candida albicans vaginal infection model was studied in particular. The results showed that tribulus terrestris was very effective against several pathogenic candidal species and Cryptococcus neoformans in vitro. It is noteworthy that tribulus terrestris saponins were very active against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Phase contrast microscopy showed that tribulus terrestris inhibited hyphal formation, an important virulence factor of Candida albicans, and transmission electron microscopy showed that tribulus terrestris destroyed the cell membrane of Candida albicans. In conclusion, tribulus terrestris has significant in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity, weakening the virulence of Candida albicans and killing fungi through destroying the cell membrane.

Effect of Tribulus terrestris on nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase activity and androgen receptors in rat brain.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Jan 4;96(1-2):127-32.

Tribulus terrestris L. (Zygophyllaceae) have been used as an aphrodisiac both in the Indian and Chinese traditional systems of medicine. Administration of Tribulus terrestris extract increased sexual behaviour and intracavernous pressure both in normal and castrated rats and these effects were probably due to the androgen increasing property of tribulus. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effect of tribulus on nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d) activity and androgen receptor (AR) immunoreactivity in rat brain. There was an increase in both NADPH-d and androgen receptor immunoreactivity in tribulus terrestris treated group and these results were statistically significant compared to the control. Chronic treatment of tribulus terrestris in rats increases the NADPH-d positive neurons and AR immunoreactivity in the PVN region. Androgens are known to increase both AR and NADPH-d positive neurons either directly or by its conversion to oestrogen. The mechanism for the observed increase in AR and NADPH-d positive neurons in the present study is probably due to the androgen increasing property of tribulus terrestris. The findings from the present study add further support to the aphrodisiac claims of tribulus terrestris.

Investigation on inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing effects of saponins from Tribulus terrestris on hepatoma cell line BEL-7402
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2004 Jul;29(7):681-4.

To investigate the inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing effects of saponins from Tribulus terrestris on liver cancer cell line BEL-7402. Saponins from tribulus terrestris exert its cytotoxic effect on BEL-7402 cells by inducing apoptosis.

A novel furostanol saponin from Tribulus terrestris of Bulgarian origin.
Fitoterapia. 2004 Mar;75(2):117-22.

The phytochemical investigation of the aerial parts of Tribulus terrestris of Bulgarian origin has resulted in the isolation of the novel furostanol saponin 1, named tribol, together with the known spirostanol saponins 2 and 3 and sitosterol glucoside.


Terrestrinins A and B, two new steroid saponins from Tribulus terrestris.
J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2003 Dec;5(4):285-90.
Two new steroid saponins, named terrestrinins A and B, along with six known compounds were isolated from the Chinese medicine herb Tribulus terrestris.

Study of antihypertensive mechanism of Tribulus terestris in 2K1C hypertensive rats: role of tissue ACE activity.

Life Sci. 2003 Oct 24;73(23):2963-71.
Tribulus terrestris is a natural herb used for treating many diseases including hypertension. According to previous reports, aqueous extract of tribulus fruits may have some antihypertensive effect with an unknown mechanism. The present study investigated the antihypertensive mechanism of tribulus in 2K1C hypertensive rats by measurement of circulatory and local ACE activity in aorta, heart, kidney and lung. Four groups of rats were selected; control, sham, operated or hypertensive and tribulus treated hypertensive group. Hypertension was induced using silver clip on renal artery by surgery. Four weeks after surgery, a single daily dose of 10 mg/kg of lyophilized aqueous extract of tribulus fruit were given orally to rats for four weeks. The systolic blood pressure (SBP) was significantly increased in 2K1C rats compared to control rats. The SBP of tribulus fed hypertensive rats was significantly decreased compared to hypertensive rats. The ACE activity in all tissues of 2K1C rats including: aorta, heart, kidney, lung as well as serum were significantly increased compared to normal rats. The ACE activity in all tissues of tribulus fed hypertensive rats was significantly lower than that of hypertensive rats, which was more pronounced in kidney. These results indicated that there is a negative correlation between consumption of tribulus terrestris and ACE activity in serum and different tissues in 2K1C rats.

Effect of saponin from Tribulus terrestris on hyperlipidemia

Zhong Yao Cai. 2003 May;26(5):341-4.
The preventive and therapeutic effects of saponin from Tribulus terrestris on diet-induced hyperlipidemia in mice have been studied. It showed that in preventive experiment the tribulus terrestris saponin could significantly low the levels of serum total cholesterol and triglyceride.

The inhibitory effect of saponins from Tribulus terrestris on Bcap-37 breast cancer cell line in vitro

Zhong Yao Cai. 2003 Feb;26(2):104-6.
The inhibitory effect of saponins from Tribulus terrestris on Bcap37 breast cancer cell line were determined by cell growth curve, MTT assay, protein content assay and morphological observation. The results showed that saponins from tribulus terrestris had potent inhibitory effect on Bcap-37 cell line in a concentration-dependent manner. Bcap-37 cell exhibited morphological alteration, namely, cells got round and shrunk, nuclei contracted after treatment with this herb. 

Experimental Tribulus terrestris poisoning in sheep: clinical, laboratory and pathological findings.

Vet Res Commun. 2003 Jan;27(1):53-62.
Eleven native sheep, 1-2 years old, of both sexes were randomly divided into two groups, 6 sheep being allocated to the experimental group and 5 serving as controls. The sheep in the experimental group were fed 80% Tribulus terrestris and 20% alfalfa hay and wheat straw, while the control sheep were given a mixture of 40% alfalfa hay and 60% wheat straw. Clinical signs of hepatogenous photosensitivity were observed from day 11, including reddening and crust formation on the muzzle, nose, ears and eyelids, depression, weight loss, icterus, conjunctivitis, and yellow discoloration of the urine. Laboratory findings on weekly samples indicated significant differences in white blood cell count, total plasma protein and fibrinogen, total and direct bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine concentrations. There were no significant differences in the packed cell volume, in the neutrophil, lymphocyte or eosinophil counts, or in the serum calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium or chloride concentrations. At necropsy of the animals consuming tribulus terrestris, there were various degrees of generalized icterus and the livers were swollen and discolored by bile pigment. Histopathological examination revealed varying amounts of crystalloid material in the bile ducts and renal tubules, hepatocellular degeneration, biliary fibrosis and proliferation, renal tubular necrosis and focal necrosis of cardiac muscle.

Aphrodisiac properties of Tribulus Terrestris extract (Protodioscin) in normal and castrated rats.
Life Sci. 2002 Aug 9;71(12):1385-96.
Tribulus terrestris has long been used in the traditional Chinese and Indian systems of medicine for the treatment of various ailments and is popularly claimed to improve sexual functions in man. Sexual behavior and intracavernous pressure (ICP) were studied in both normal and castrated rats to further understand the role of Tribulus terrestris containing protodioscin as an aphrodisiac. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups of 8 each that included distilled water treated (normal and castrated), testosterone treated (normal and castrated, 10 mg/kg body weight, subcutaneously, bi-weekly) and Tribulus terrestris treated (castrated, 5 mg/kg body weight, orally once daily). Decreases in body weight, prostate weight and ICP were observed among the castrated groups of rats compared to the intact group. There was an overall reduction in the sexual behavior parameters in the castrated groups of rats as reflected by decrease in mount and intromission frequencies (MF and IF) and increase in mount, intromission, ejaculation latencies (ML, IL, EL) as well as post-ejaculatory interval (PEI). Compared to the castrated control, treatment of castrated rats (with either testosterone or Tribulus terrestris extract) showed increase in prostate weight and ICP that were statistically significant. There was also a mild to moderate improvement of the sexual behavior parameters as evidenced by increase in MF and IF; decrease in ML, IL and PEI. It is concluded that Tribulus terrestris extract appears to possess aphrodisiac activity probably due to androgen increasing property of Tribulus terrestris (observed in our earlier study on primates).

Hypoglycemic effect of saponin from Tribulus terrestris

Zhong Yao Cai. 2002 Jun;25(6):420-2.
To study the hypoglycemic effect of saponins from Tribulus terrestris. The level of serum glucose could be significantly reduced by saponin from Tribulus terrestris, which was the rate of 26% and 40% in normal mice and diabetic mice in respectively. The level of serum triglyceride could be reduced 23%. The tribulus saponin could also decrease the content of serum cholesterol. Serum SOD activity of the mice was increased by the saponin. Saponins from Tribulus terrestris reduce the level of serum glucose.

The effects of Tribulus terrestris on body composition and exercise performance in resistance-trained males.
Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2000 Jun;10(2):208-15.xtract
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the herbal preparation Tribulus terrestris (tribulus) on body composition and exercise performance in resistance-trained males. Fifteen subjects were randomly assigned to a placebo or tribulus (3.21 mg per kg body weight daily) group. Body weight, body composition, maximal strength, dietary intake, and mood states were determined before and after an 8-week exercise (periodized resistance training) and supplementation period. There were no changes in body weight, percentage fat, total body water, dietary intake, or mood states in either group. Muscle endurance increased for the bench and leg press exercises in the placebo group, while the tribulus terrestris group experienced an increase in leg press strength only . Supplementation with tribulus does not enhance body composition or exercise performance in resistance-trained males.

Sexual behavior and intracavernous pressure (ICP) were studied in both normal and castrated rats to further understand the role of tribulus containing protodioscin as an aphrodisiac. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups of 8 each that included distilled water treated (normal and castrated), testosterone treated (normal and castrated, 10 mg/kg body weight, subcutaneously, bi-weekly) and tribulus treated (castrated, 5 mg/kg body weight, orally once daily). Decreases in body weight, prostate weight and ICP were observed among the castrated groups of rats compared to the intact group. There was an overall reduction in the sexual behaviour parameters in the castrated groups of rats as reflected by decrease in mount and intromission frequencies (MF and IF) and increase in mount, intromission, ejaculation latencies (ML, IL, EL) as well as post-ejaculatory interval (PEI). Compared to the castrated control, treatment of castrated rats (with either testosterone or tribulus extract) showed increase in prostate weight and ICP that were statistically significant. There was also a mild to moderate improvement of the sexual behaviour parameters as evidenced by increase in MF and IF; decrease in ML, IL and PEI. These results were statistically significant. It is concluded that tribulus extract appears to possess aphrodisiac activity.

More Details about the tribulus terrestris plant
Tribulus terrestris, also known as Puncturevine, is a prostrate annual herb that grows from a simple taproot. The tribulus plant produces numerous stems, up to several feet long, that are much branched and arise from the crown to produce a dense mat. The tribulus terrestris fruit is a woody burr with sharp, rigid spines (strong enough to puncture bicycle tires or penetrate shoe soles). Tribulus is Latin for "three-pointed, a caltrop," the shape of which is suggested by the three-pronged tribulus fruit, and referring to the caltrop, a military weapon, an iron ball with projecting spikes
Tribulus terrestris is a serious weed in pastures, roadsides, waste places, and cultivated fields. The spines of the tribulus fruit can cause damage to the feet of animals and are a nuisance to children. If growing in orchards or vineyards, it is a problem to the fruit pickers. If grazing animals happen to eat a bur, it may cause injury to the mouth, stomach, and intestines. 
 
 This plant is found throughout the United States, except along the northern tier from Montana to New England. It is also found in Asia, South Africa, the Mediterranean region, South America, and Australia. Tribulus terrestris was introduced into the United States with livestock imported from the Mediterranean region. It has become widespread since then.

Tribulus History
It is believed that in ancient Greece and India that tribulus terrestris was used as a rejuvenation tonic.  In China, tribulus terrestris is used in a number of conditions affecting the liver and kidney as well as the cardiovascular and immune systems.  The role of tribulus terrestris in eastern European folk medicine for muscle strength and sexual potency led to two decades of formal (though secret) government-sponsored studies. A noted outcome of this research was the success of the Bulgarian weight lifting team which stunned the world in Olympic competition. Whether tribulus herb use was responsible is difficult to know for certain. The development of a formula for tribulus terrestris, along with the rise of a market economy in eastern Europe, has rapidly expanded the use of tribulus over the last decade. Tribulus terrestris herb is now sold as a standardized pharmaceutical preparation for muscle strength and sexual potency throughout Europe, the Middle East, and Asia.

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