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Cissus Quadrangularis std 4% 100 Grams


ADP: $39.99
Price: $14.99
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Manufacturer: *Supplement Direct*
Manufacturer Part No: 734890003109
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Supplement Direct Cissus Quadrangularis is standardized plant extract minimum 4% ketosteroids through UV methods. Cissus Quadrangularis has been used traditionally to support optimal joint health, enhance recovery, support healthy weight management, and as a antioxidant.

100 Grams
Supplement Facts
Serving Size1/4Level Teaspoon(750mg)
Servings Per Container133
Amount Per Serving
Cissus Quadrangularis (4% Standardized Extract) 750mg
Calories 0
Total Fat 0g
Saturated Fat 0g
Cholesterol 0g
Sodium 0g
Potassium 0g
Total Carbohydrates 0g
Dietary Fiber 0g
Sugars 0g
Protein 0g
Not A Significant Source Of Any Vitamins
Ingredient
Cissus Quadrangularis.

Directions For Supplement Direct Cissus Quadrangularis: Take 1-2 servings 1-2 times daily preferably prior to breakfast and dinner.

 

* These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.
 

The use of a Cissus quadrangularis/Irvingia gabonensis combination in the management of weight loss: a double-blind placebo-controlled study.

Oben JE, Ngondi JL, Momo CN, Agbor GA, Sobgui CS.

Laboratory of Nutrition and Nutritional Biochemistry, Department of Biochemistry, B,P, 812, University of Yaoundé 1, Yaoundé, Cameroon. juliusoben@hotmail.com

AIM: To evaluate the effects of two formulations, Cissus quadrangularis-only and a Cissus quadrangularis/Irvingia gabonensis combination, on weight loss in overweight and obese human subjects. METHODS: The study was a 10 week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design involving 72 obese or overweight participants (45.8% male; 54.2% female; ages 21-44; mean age = 29.3). The participants were randomly divided into three equal (n = 24) groups: placebo, Cissus quadrangularis-only, and Cissus quadrangularis/Irvingia gabonensis combination. Capsules containing the placebo or active formulations were administered twice daily before meals; no major dietary changes nor exercises were suggested during the study. A total of six anthropomorphic and serological measurements (body weight, body fat, waist size; total plasma cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, fasting blood glucose level) were taken at baseline and at 4, 8 and 10 weeks. RESULTS: Compared to the placebo group, the two active groups showed a statistically significant difference on all six variables by week 10. The magnitude of the differences was noticeable by week 4 and continued to increase over the trial period. CONCLUSION: Although the Cissus quadrangularis-only group showed significant reductions on all variables compared to the placebo group, the Cissus quadrangularis/Irvingia gabonensis combination resulted in even larger reductions. This apparently synergistic formulation should prove helpful in the management of obesity and its related complications.

Constituents of Cissus quadrangularis.

Singh G, Rawat P, Maurya R.

Medicinal and Process Chemistry Division, Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, India.

Two new iridoids 6-O-[2,3-dimethoxy]-trans-cinnamoyl catalpol (1) and 6-O-meta-methoxy-benzoyl catalpol (2) along with a known iridoid picroside 1 (3), two stilbenes quadrangularin A (4) and pallidol (5), quercitin (6), quercitrin (7), beta-sitosterol (8) and beta-sitosterol glycoside (9) were isolated from Cissus quadrangularis Linn. The compounds 3 and 7 are first reported from this plant. The structures were elucidated by analysis of their spectroscopic data and by direct comparison with literature. This is the first reported occurrence of iridoids in C. quadrangularis.

 

The effect of Cissus quadrangularis (CQR-300) and a Cissus formulation (CORE) on obesity and obesity-induced oxidative stress.

Oben JE, Enyegue DM, Fomekong GI, Soukontoua YB, Agbor GA.

Laboratory of Nutrition and Nutritional Biochemistry, Department of Biochemistry, University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, Cameroon. juliusoben@hotmail.com

AIM: Obesity is generally linked to complications in lipid metabolism and oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of a proprietary extract of Cissus quadrangularis (CQR-300) to that of a proprietary formulation containing CQR-300 (CORE) on weight, blood lipids, and oxidative stress in overweight and obese people. METHODS: The first part of the study investigated the in vitro antioxidant properties of CQR-300 and CORE using 3 different methods, while the second part of the study was a double-blind placebo controlled design, involving initially 168 overweight and obese persons (38.7% males; 61.3% females; ages 19-54), of whom 153 completed the study. All participants received two daily doses of CQR-300, CORE, or placebo and were encouraged to maintain their normal levels of physical activity. Anthropometric measurements and blood sampling were done at the beginning and end of the study period. RESULTS: CQR-300 as well as CORE exhibited antioxidant properties in vitro. They also acted as in vivo antioxidants, bringing about significant (p < 0.001) reductions in plasma TBARS and carbonyls. Both CQR-300 and CORE also brought about significant reductions in weight, body fat, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting blood glucose levels over the respective study periods. These changes were accompanied by a significant increase in HDL-cholesterol levels, plasma 5-HT, and creatinine. CONCLUSION: CQR-300 (300 mg daily) and CORE (1028 mg daily) brought about significant reductions in weight and blood glucose levels, while decreasing serum lipids thus improving cardiovascular risk factors. The increase in plasma 5-HT and creatinine for both groups hypothesizes a mechanism of controlling appetite and promoting the increase of lean muscle mass by Cissus quadrangularis, thereby supporting the clinical data for weight loss and improving cardiovascular health.

 

Antiplasmodial and GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptor binding activities of five plants used in traditional medicine in Mali, West Africa.

Bah S, Jäger AK, Adsersen A, Diallo D, Paulsen BS.

University of Oslo, School of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, PO Box 1068 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo, Norway.

Extracts of five medicinal plants: Boscia angustifolia, Cissus quadrangularis, Securidaca longipedunculata, Stylosanthes erecta and Trichilia emetica, used traditionally in Malian traditional medicine were screened for in vitro antiplasmodial activity and GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptor binding activity. Four extracts showed significant antiplasmodial activities, with the dichloromethane extract of leaf of Securidaca longipedunculata being the most active (IC(50) of 7 microg/ml [95% CI: 5-9]). The dichloromethane extract of leaf of Trichilia emetica, in addition to its antiplasmodial activity (IC(50): 12 microg/ml [95% CI: 12-14]), exhibited a good binding activity to the GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptor, while water and methanol extracts of the same plant did not show any activity. A strong GABA(A)-receptor complex binding activity was observed in the methanol extract of aerial part of Stylosanthes erecta. The results in this study justify some of the traditional indications of the plants investigated and may thus be candidates for Improved Traditional Medicines in Mali.

Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and venotonic effects of Cissus quadrangularis Linn.

Panthong A, Supraditaporn W, Kanjanapothi D, Taesotikul T, Reutrakul V.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand. apanthon@mail.med.cmu.ac.th

Cissus quadrangularis, a medicinal plant indigenous to Asia and Africa, is used for many ailments, especially for the treatment of hemorrhoid. The effects associated with hemorrhoid, i.e. analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities as well as the venotonic effect of the methanol extract of C. quadrangularis (CQ) were assessed in comparison with reference drugs. In the analgesic test, CQ provoked a significant reduction of the number of writhes in acetic acid-induced writhing response in mice. CQ also significantly reduced the licking time in both phases of the formalin test. The results suggest peripheral and central analgesic activity of CQ. In acute phase of inflammation CQ elicited the inhibitory effect on the edema formation of the rats' ear induced by ethyl phenylpropiolate as well as on the formation of the paw edema in rats induced by both carrageenin and arachidonic acid. It is likely that CQ is a dual inhibitor of arachidonic acid metabolism. In addition, CQ exerted venotonic effect on isolated human umbilical vein similarly to the mixture of bioflavonoids, i.e. 90% diosmin and 10% hesperidin. The results obtained confirmed the traditional use of C. quadrangularis for the treatment of pain and inflammation associated with hemorrhoid as well as reducing the size of hemorrhoids.

 
 
 

Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus.

Lans CA.

BCICS, University of Victoria, British Columbia, V8W 2Y2, Canada. cher2lans@netscape.net

BACKGROUND: This paper is based on ethnobotanical interviews conducted from 1996-2000 in Trinidad and Tobago with thirty male and female respondents. METHODS: A non-experimental validation was conducted on the plants used for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus: This is a preliminary step to establish that the plants used are safe or effective, to help direct clinical trials, and to inform Caribbean physicians of the plants' known properties to avoid counter-prescribing. RESULTS: The following plants are used to treat diabetes: Antigonon leptopus, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Carica papaya, Catharanthus roseus, Cocos nucifera, Gomphrena globosa, Laportea aestuans, Momordica charantia, Morus alba, Phyllanthus urinaria and Spiranthes acaulis. Apium graviolens is used as a heart tonic and for low blood pressure. Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Cuscuta americana and Gomphrena globosa are used for jaundice. The following plants are used for hypertension: Aloe vera, Annona muricata, Artocarpus altilis, Bixa orellana, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bonta daphnoides, Carica papaya, Cecropia peltata, Citrus paradisi, Cola nitida, Crescentia cujete, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Kalanchoe pinnata, Morus alba, Nopalea cochinellifera, Ocimum campechianum, Passiflora quadrangularis, Persea americana and Tamarindus indicus. The plants used for kidney problems are Theobroma cacao, Chamaesyce hirta, Flemingia strobilifera, Peperomia rotundifolia, Petiveria alliacea, Nopalea cochinellifera, Apium graveolens, Cynodon dactylon, Eleusine indica, Gomphrena globosa, Pityrogramma calomelanos and Vetiveria zizanioides. Plants are also used for gall stones and for cooling. CONCLUSION: Chamaesyce hirta, Cissus verticillata, Kalanchoe pinnata, Peperomia spp., Portulaca oleraceae, Scoparia dulcis, and Zea mays have sufficient evidence to support their traditional use for urinary problems, "cooling" and high cholesterol. Eggplant extract as a hypocholesterolemic agent has some support but needs more study. The plants used for hypertension, jaundice and diabetes that may be safe and justify more formal evaluation are Annona squamosa, Aloe vera, Apium graveolens, Bidens alba, Carica papaya, Catharanthus roseus, Cecropia peltata, Citrus paradisi, Hibsicus sabdariffa, Momordica charantia, Morus alba, Persea americana, Phyllanthus urinaria, Tamarindus indicus and Tournefortia hirsutissima. Several of the plants are used for more than one condition and further trials should take this into account.

 
 
 

The use of a Cissus quadrangularis formulation in the management of weight loss and metabolic syndrome.

Oben J, Kuate D, Agbor G, Momo C, Talla X.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, Cameroon. juliusoben@hotmail.com

AIM: Once considered a problem of developed countries, obesity and obesity-related complications (such as metabolic syndrome) are rapidly spreading around the globe. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the use of a Cissus quadrangularis formulation in the management of metabolic syndrome, particularly weight loss and central obesity. METHODS: The study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design involving 123 overweight and obese persons (47.2% male; 52.8% female; ages 19-50). The 92 obese (BMI >30) participants were randomized into three groups; placebo, formulation/no diet, and formulation/diet (2100-2200 calories/day). The 31 overweight participants (BMI = 25-29) formed a fourth (no diet) treatment group. All participants received two daily doses of the formulation or placebo and remained on a normal or calorie-controlled diet for 8 weeks. RESULTS: At the end of the trial period, statistically significant net reductions in weight and central obesity, as well as in fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and C-reactive protein were observed in participants who received the formulation, regardless of diet. CONCLUSION: Cissus quadrangularis formulation appears to be useful in the management of weight loss and metabolic syndrome.

 
 
 

Gastroprotective effect of Cissus quadrangularis extract in rats with experimentally induced ulcer.

Jainu M, Vijai Mohan K, Shyamala Devi CS.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Madras, Chennai, India. malsleo80@yahoo.co.in

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Most of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) including aspirin cause gastric ulcer. In order to study the gastroprotective effect of Cissus quadrangularis extract (CQE), this study was undertaken on aspirin-induced ulcerogenesis in pyloric ligated (ASP-PL) model in rats. METHODS: To assess the possible antiulcer effect of CQE, lesion index, gastric secretions glycoprotein levels, non-protein sulphydryls (NPSH) and adherent mucus content were determined in ASP-PL induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. RESULTS: Pretreatment with CQE significantly prevented the gastric mucosal lesion development and decreased the gastric toxicity produced by ulcerogen. In addition, ulcerated rats showed depletion of gastric wall mucus, glycoproteins and NPSH levels whereas treatment with CQE reverted this decline in ASP-PL induced rats. Histological studies confirmed the results. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: The present finding suggests that CQE promotes ulcer protection by the decrease in ulcer index, gastric secretions and increase in the glycoprotein level, gastric mucin content and NPSH concentration. CQE may protect the gastric mucosa against ulceration by its antisecretory and cytoprotective property.

 
 
 

Gastroprotective action of Cissus quadrangularis extract against NSAID induced gastric ulcer: role of proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative damage.

Jainu M, Devi CS.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Madras, A.C. Tech, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025, Tamil Nadu, India. malsleo80@yahoo.co.in

The objective of this research was to analyse the gastroprotective effect of Cissus quadrangularis extract (CQE) along with its mechanism underlying the therapeutic action against the gastric mucosal damage induced by aspirin. In this study, we investigated the effect of CQE on the course of experimentally induced gastric ulcer by analyzing the levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), microvascular permeability, activity of nitric oxide synthase-2 (NOS-2), mitochondrial antioxidants, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. A significant increase in vascular permeability, NOS-2 activity, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta levels and oxidative damage were noted in aspirin administered rats. Pretreatment with CQE (500 mg/kg bw/day) by oral gavage for 7 days significantly attenuated these biochemical changes caused by aspirin in rats. Tissue damage was showed by decreased levels of glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and an associated rise in lipid peroxidation (LPO) in mitochondria, which were reversed by CQE. In addition, CQE prevents oxidative damage of DNA by reducing DNA fragmentation indicating its block on cell death. Ulcer protection in CQE treated rats was confirmed by histoarchitecture, which was comprised of reduced size of ulcer crater and restoration of mucosal epithelium. Thus, reduced neutrophil infiltration, antiapoptotic and antioxidant action have a pivotal role in the gastroprotective effect of CQE.

 
 
 

Characterization of cysteine proteases in Malian medicinal plants.

Bah S, Paulsen BS, Diallo D, Johansen HT.

University of Oslo, School of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, P.O. Box 1068 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo, Norway.

Extracts form 10 different Malian medicinal plants with a traditional use against schistosomiasis were investigated for their possible content of proteolytic activity. The proteolytic activity was studied by measuring the hydrolysis of two synthetic peptide substrates Z-Ala-Ala-Asn-NHMec and Z-Phe-Arg-NHMec. Legumain- and papain-like activities were found in all tested crude extracts except those from Entada africana, with the papain-like activity being the strongest. Cissus quadrangularis, Securidaca longepedunculata and Stylosanthes erecta extracts showed high proteolytic activities towards both substrates. After gel filtration the proteolytic activity towards the substrate Z-Ala-Ala-Asn-NHMec in root extract of Securidaca longepedunculata appeared to have Mr of 30 and 97kDa, while the activity in extracts from Cissus quadrangularis was at 39kDa. Enzymatic activity cleaving the substrate Z-Phe-Arg-NHMec showed apparent Mr of 97 and 26kDa in extracts from roots and leaves of Securidaca longepedunculata, while in Cissus quadrangularis extracts the activity eluted at 39 and 20kDa, with the highest activity in the latter. All Z-Phe-Arg-NHMec activities were inhibited by E-64 but unaffected by PMSF. The legumain activity was unaffected by E-64 and PMSF. The SDS-PAGE analysis exhibited five distinct gelatinolytic bands for Cissus quadrangularis extracts (115, 59, 31, 22 and 20kDa), while two bands (59 and 30kDa) were detected in Securidaca longepedunculata extracts. The inhibition profile of the gelatinolytic bands and that of the hydrolysis of the synthetic substrates indicate the cysteine protease class of the proteolytic activities. Several cysteine protease activities with different molecular weights along with a strong variability of these activities between species as well as between plant parts from the same species were observed.

 
 
 

Attenuation of neutrophil infiltration and proinflammatory cytokines by Cissus quadrangularis: a possible prevention against gastric ulcerogenesis.

Jainu M, Shyamala Devi CS.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

Reactive oxygen species, neutrophil infiltration and proinflammatory cytokines play an important role in the pathogenesis of gastric ulcers caused by aspirin. The present study demonstrates the healing effect of Cissus quadrangularis extract (CQE) through inhibitory action on generation of lipid peroxidation, proinflammatory cytokines and neutrophil infiltration. The concentration ofmalondialdehye (MDA), protein carbonyl content, conjugated dienes, mucosal (SH) sulphydryls, uric acid, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and activities of myeloperoxidase (MPO), xanthine oxidase (XO) and antioxidative enzymes were determined in the gastric mucosa. Administration of CQE significantly attenuated the gastric lesions induced by aspirin and this was accompanied by the rise in uric acid, antioxidative enzymes, SH groups, and a significant decrease in lipid peroxidase, TNF-alpha, MPO and XO activities. These findings suggest that the significant gastroprotective activity could be mediated by the antioxidant activity as well as by the attenuation of oxidative mechanism and proinflammatory cytokines.

 
 
 

Ethnopharmacological survey of plants used for the treatment of schistosomiasis in Niono District, Mali.

Bah S, Diallo D, Dembélé S, Paulsen BS.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1068 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo, Norway.

In Mali the use of traditional medicine is a wide spread phenomenon, not only because of its cultural importance, but also as the majority of people cannot afford the western drugs or medicines. In Mali, the Office du Niger area constitutes the main zone of schistosomiasis transmission where both Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium are encountered. An ethnopharmacological survey, using questionnaire, was conducted in the Office du Niger area of the Niono District to determine the plants used against schistosomiasis amongst traditional healers. Forty healers from 21 villages of six different health areas were interviewed. All interviewed healers knew about urinary schistosomiasis, while only six knew about the intestinal form. The presence of blood in urine was reported as the main symptom of urinary schistosomiasis. Fifty-five plants belonging to 30 families were reported to be used alone for treating urinary and intestinal schistosomiasis, while nine combinations of plants were used against the urinary form of the disease. Cissus quadrangularis and Stylosanthes erecta were the plants most frequently used and were reported for the first time, to be used against schistosomiasis in Mali.

 
 
 

Protective effect of Cissus quadrangularis on neutrophil mediated tissue injury induced by aspirin in rats.

Jainu M, Mohan KV, Devi CS.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025, India.

Cissus quadrangularis (family: Vitaceae) is well known for the treatment of gastric disorders in traditional medicine, owing to its rich source of carotenoids, triterpenoids and ascorbic acid, and has received considerable attention regarding its role in human nutrition. In the search of new potential antiulcer agents, the present study evaluated the ethanol extract of Cissus quadrangularis (CQE) against the gastric toxicity induced by aspirin in rats. The optimum protective dose of 500 mg/kg of extract was selected by the pretreatment of gastric ulcers with different doses of CQE (250, 500 and 750 mg/kg) for 7 days which showed ulcer protection by 40, 71.2 and 72.6%, respectively, as compared to ranitidine (RTD) (30 mg/kg) by 71.9% in the aspirin model. In addition, results have shown that administration of aspirin increases lipid peroxidation status, xanthine oxidase (XO), myeloperoxidase and decrease in selenium-glutathione peroxidase activities in the gastric mucosa, resulting in mucosal damage at both cellular and subcellular level. Pretreatment with CQE ameliorated the observed effect significantly in the gastric mucosa of ulcerated rats. These findings suggest that the gastroprotective activity of CQE could be mediated possibly through its antioxidant effect as well as by the attenuation of the oxidative mechanism and neutrophil infiltration.

 
 
 

Effect of Cissus quadrangularis on gastric mucosal defensive factors in experimentally induced gastric ulcer-a comparative study with sucralfate.

Jainu M, Devi CS.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai, India.

Cissus quadrangularis is an indigenous plant commonly mentioned in Ayurveda for treatment of gastric ulcers. The ulcer-protective effect of a methanolic extract of C. quadrangularis (CQE) was comparable to that of the reference drug sucralfate. Further, gastric juice and mucosal studies showed that CQE at a dose of 500 mg/kg given for 10 days significantly increased the mucosal defensive factors like mucin secretion, mucosal cell proliferation, glycoproteins, and life span of cells. The present investigation suggests that CQE not only strengthens mucosal resistance against ulcerogens but also promotes healing by inducing cellular proliferation. Thus, CQE has potential usefulness for treatment of peptic ulcer disease.

 
 
 

Antiosteoporotic effect of ethanol extract of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. on ovariectomized rat.

Shirwaikar A, Khan S, Malini S.

Department of Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal, India. annie.shirwaikar@cops.manipal.edu

Ethanol extract of Cissus quadrangularis was evaluated for its anti-osteoporotic activity in ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis at two different dose levels of 500 and 750 mg/kg per day. Healthy female albino rats were divided into five groups of six animals each. First group was sham operated and served as control. All the remaining groups were ovariectomized. Group 2 was fed with equivolume of saline and served as ovariectomized control. Groups 3-5 were orally treated with Raloxifen (5.4 mg/kg) and ethanol extract of Cissus quadrangularis (500 and 750 mg/kg), respectively. The findings assessed on the basis of biomechanical, biochemical and histopathological parameters showed that the ethanol extract of the plant had a definite antiosteoporotic effect.

 
 
 

Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Cissus quadrangularis L.

Chidambara Murthy KN, Vanitha A, Mahadeva Swamy M, Ravishankar GA.

Cell Biotechnology Department, Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore 570 013, India.

Extracts of Cissus quadrangularis L. were tested for antioxidant activity by beta-carotene linoleic acid model and also by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl model. The ethyl acetate fraction of both fresh and dry stem extracts at a concentration of 100 ppm showed 64.8% antioxidant activity in the beta-carotene linoleic acid system and 61.6% in the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl system. This fraction showed the presence of sterols, vitamin C, and tannins as phytoconstituents. The antioxidant activity of methanol extract and aqueous extract were comparatively less significant than that of ethyl acetate extract, and n-hexane extract showed the least activity. The ethyl acetate extract and methanol extract of both fresh and dry stems further exhibited antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, including Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus species. The results of the study have implications in the use of C. quadrangularis as an antibacterial agent and more so as an antioxidant in several applications requiring these properties.

 
 
 

Determination of marker constituents from Cissus quadrangularis Linn. and their quantitation by HPTLC and HPLC.

Mehta M, Kaur N, Bhutani KK.

Department of Natural Products, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Sector 67, S.A.S. Nagar, Mohali, Near Chandigarh 160062, India.

Four marker constituents, namely, onocer-7-ene-3 alpha, 21 beta-diol, delta-amyrin, delta-amyrone and 3,3',4,4'-tetrahydroxybiphenyl of an Ayurvedic crude drug Cissus quadrangularis Linn. are defined for standardisation purposes. 3,3',4,4'-Tetrahydroxybiphenyl has been isolated for the first time from this drug. The contents of the marker constituents were quantitatively determined by HPTLC and HPLC methods in samples collected from five different geographic zones of India.

 
 
 

Genotoxic effects of some foods & food components in Swiss mice.

Balachandran B, Sivaswamy SN, Sivaramakrishnan VM.

Isotope Division, Cancer Institute, Madras.

A number of commonly consumed foods and food components in south India were screened for their genotoxic effects on Swiss mice. Salted, sundried and oil fried vegetables and fishes induced chromosomal aberrations, sperm head abnormalities and micronuclei production, which were comparable to the effect of the positive control viz., 20-methylcholanthrene. Spices like Cissus quadrangularis (an indigenous herb used in certain south Indian dishes) and pyrolysed cumin and aniseeds showed moderate effects. Calamus oil, widely used in pharmaceuticals was highly effective. All the three parameters of genotoxicity gave similar results.

 
 
 

Mutagenic activity of south Indian food items.

Sivaswamy SN, Balachandran B, Balanehru S, Sivaramakrishnan VM.

Isotope Division, Cancer Institute, Madras, India.

Dietary components and food dishes commonly consumed in South India were screened for their mutagenic activity. Kesari powder, calamus oil, palm drink, toddy and Kewra essence were found to be strongly mutagenic; garlic, palm oil, arrack, onion and pyrolysed portions of bread toast, chicory powder were weakly mutagenic, while tamarind and turmeric were not. Certain salted, sundried and oil fried food items were also mutagenic. Cissus quadrangularis was mutagenic, while 'decoctions' of cumin seeds, aniseeds and ginger were not. Several perfumes, essential oils and colouring agents, which are commonly used were also screened and many of them exhibited their mutagenic potential by inducing the 'reverse mutation' in Salmonella typhimurium tester strains.

 
 
 

Ammonia Fixation via Glutamine Synthetase and Glutamate Synthase in the CAM Plant Cissus quadrangularis L.

Berger MG, Sprengart ML, Kusnan M, Fock HP.

Universität Kaiserslautern, Fachbereich Biologie, Postfach 3049, 6750 Kaiserslautern, Federal Republic of Germany.

Succulent stems of Cissus quadrangularis L. (Vitaceae) contain glutamine synthetase, glutamate synthase, and glutamate dehydrogenase. The CO(2) and water gas exchanges of detached internodes were typical for Crassulacean acid metabolism plants. During three physiological phases, e.g. in the dark, in the early illumination period after stomata closure, and during the late light phase with the stomata wide open, (15)NH(4)Cl was injected into the central pith of stem sections. The kinetics of (15)N labeling in glutamate and glutamine suggested that glutamine synthetase was involved in the initial ammonia fixation. In the presence of methionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of glutamine synthetase, the incorporation of (15)N derived from (15)NH(4)Cl was almost completely inhibited. Injections of amido-(15)N glutamine demonstrated a potential for (15)N transfer from the amido group of glutamine into glutamate which was suppressed by the glutamate synthase inhibitor, azaserine. The evidence indicates that glutamine synthetase and glutamate synthase could assimilate ammonia and cycle nitrogen during all phases of Crassulacean acid metabolism.

 
 
 

Variable Photosynthetic Metabolism in Leaves and Stems of Cissus quadrangularis L.

Ting IP, Sternberg LO, Deniro MJ.

Department of Botany and Plant Sciences, University of California, Riverside, California 92521.

By measuring titratable acidity, gas exchange parameters, mesophyll succulence, and (13)C/(12)C ratios, we have shown that Cissus quadrangularis L. has C(3)-like leaves and stems with Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). In addition, the nonsucculent leaves show the diurnal fluctuations in organic acids termed recycling despite the fact that all CO(2) uptake and stomatal opening occurs during the day. Young succulent stems have more C(3) photosynthesis than older stems, but both have characteristics of CAM. The genus Cissus will be a fruitful group to study the physiology, ecology, and evolution of C(3) and CAM since species occur that exhibit characteristics of both photosynthetic pathways.

 

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Outstanding joint support... the powder form tastes fine too.
Cory McCarthy (New York City) 1/28/2010 1:29 PM
I had been taking another brand of Cissus (imported from Thailand), but it was getting expensive. That was capsule form. I was afraid the powder form on here would taste bad, but it actually reminds me of the Lipton brand ice tea mix (that you put in cold water and stir). Do not put in milk or other liquids, it seems to coagulate... and the clumps taste really bitter. For this reason, do not just eat the powder either. Just drop a flat 1/4 of tsp into cold water, stir and enjoy... no sweetener needed (if you are used to black tea straight-up). Cissus has REALLY improved my joints... I used to pop and click in my shoulder... now I do not. Worlds better for my bodybuilding. Added plus, apparently it helps increase protein synthesis and fat-burning. I cannot confirm either of those (esp. fat-burn since I am currently off-season eating), but the joint part DOES work. Interesting note: In Thailand, it is sold as an aid to relieve hemorrhoids. Like Creatine, the benefits keep coming and coming! 5 stars!
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